A small detail of a Byzantine mosaic "The Betrayal of Christ" in the church of St. Apollinaire Nuovo in Ravenna, Italy. This detail is an exact copy of the original mosaic using modern versions of traditional materials and techniques of mosaic building and shows Judas leaning forward to Christ with a kiss. Italian Smalti, granite, marble, gold vitreous glass on lime plaster, ungrouted.According to gospels written by Mark, Matthew and Luke which are considered the primary source for historical information on Jesus,
In the Garden of Gethsemane - according to the gospels of the apostles, Mark, Matthew and Luke, our primary source for historical reference about Jesus – Judas identified Jesus to the soldiers by means of a kiss. The kiss leads directly to his arrest by the soldiers of Pontius Pilate, the Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea who orders the crucifixion of Jesus.
But why did Judas Iscariot betray Jesus, the one whom they thought to be the Messiah, who would some day come to the people of Israel, “anointed” as Prophet, Priest, and King by God Himself?
Let us rewind to the day before, the evening of what is now come to be known as the Last Supper when Jesus sat with twelve of his disciples around a table on the first day of Passover. As they ate, Jesus said, ” …One of you who eateth with me shall betray me” (Mark, Chapter 14:10-82)
The Last Supper - in Italian, Il Cenacolo or L'Ultima Cena, is a 15th century mural painting in Milan created by Leonardo da Vinci for his patron Duke Ludovico Sforza.. It represents the scene of The Last Supper from the final days of Jesus as it is told in the Gospel of John 13:21, when Jesus announces that one of his Twelve Disciples would betray him.
And then he took the unleavened bread, blessed it, broke it and gave it to his disciples saying,
“Take it, and eat. Behold, this is for you to do in remembrance of my body; for as oft as ye do this ye will remember this hour that I was with you.”
And then he picked up the wine cup, gave thanks, and passed it to his followers to drink from, saying,
“This is in remembrance of my blood which is shed for many …And as oft as ye do this ordinance, ye will remember me in this hour that I was with you and drank with you of this cup, even the last time in my ministry.”
After supper, the twelve walked to the garden at the foot of Mount of Olives in Jerusalem and Jesus turned to his followers and said,
“All ye shall be offended because of me this night; for it is written, I will smite the shepherd and the sheep shall be scattered. But after that I am risen, I will go before you into Galilee.”
But Peter, one of Jesus’ followers, earnestly replied that he would never be offended, to which Jesus replied, ”… this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.”
And then he turned to Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve and said, “What thou doest, do quickly; but beware of innocent blood.”
The betrayal by Judas is still a mystery to me. I would like to learn more of what made him do it? Was it envy, greed or even jealousy? In order to understand Judas’ action a little more let’s go back a few more days before the Last Supper.
It’s the evening of the Sabbath before the Passover, in Bethany, when Jesus is sitting in the house of Simon the leper who has prepared supper for him. According to the Gospel of the Holy Twelve, Mary Magdalene comes in bearing a box of very precious and costly ointment of spikenard. She opens the box and pours the ointment on the head of Jesus, anointing his feet, and wiping them with the hair of her head.
Judas, on witnessing this ceremony, questions why waste the expensive ointment “which might have been sold for three hundred pence and given to the poor?” causing others at the table to murmur against Magdalene.
Jesus replies,”Let her alone, why trouble ye her? For she hath done all she could; yea, she hath wrought a good work on Me. For ye have the poor always with you, but Me ye have not always. She hath anointed My body for the day of My burial.”
Okay, I think I am getting a picture now … Is it possible that Jesus’ favour towards Magdalene made the other followers jealous of her and turn against him? Or did they feel that Jesus had become too vain or too proud or too powerful?
Anyway, back to the story, taking it up with the Gospel of the Holy Twelve, a scripture which had been protected century-after-century from falsification by Roman emperors (in Lections 75:6, and 76:27-28). Judas says to Jesus, “Master, behold the unleaven bread, the mingled wine and the oil and the herbs, but where is the lamb that Moses commanded?” Quick aside here, Judas had bought the lamb for the meal, but Jesus had forbidden its sacrifice.
The significance of the lamb’s sacrifice harks back to 13th Century BC and the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. God, through Moses, had ordained that the blood of a sacrificed lamb was to be sprinkled on the door-posts of the Israelites as a sign to the angel of death to pass over the houses of the Jewish slaves living under the tyranny of the Pharaoh. And this observance was to be repeated annually for all time.
Stop! Who’s this Moses? What is this thing called Passover and what Exodus? Let’s go further back in time to discover the origins of the Passover and the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt in 13th Century BC.
Moses was born in Egypt into a Jewish family during a time when the Hebrews were slaves to the Pharaoh who had decreed that all male Hebrew infants be drowned in the River Nile. To save the life of infant Moses, his mother set him in a basket and floated him down the river. The basket floated down the Nile and, by a twist of fate, infant Moses’ cries were heard by the Pharaoh’s daughter who decides to adopt baby Moses as her own. So a Hebrew boy is raised as a Prince of Egypt.
As a young man, one day Moses witnesses an Egyptian overseer beating a Jewish slave. Outraged, he kills the overseer who had been carrying out his duties to the Pharaoh. The next day Moses witnesses two Hebrews fighting and tries to make peace between them, but the aggressor asks Moses: “Do you mean to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?”
Fearing his life would now be in danger from the Pharaoh Moses flees across the Red Seas to Midian. Here it is said, God speaks to Moses to help the Israelites escape from Egypt. The Bible says the Children of Israel escape slavery in Egypt when God inflicts ten plagues upon the kingdom, the tenth and worst was the death of every Egyptian first-born. The Israelites were instructed to mark the doorposts of their homes with the blood of a spring lamb and, upon seeing this, the wrath of God would pass over the first-borns in these homes. In Exodus 12:21-36 Moses says,
“You shall observe this rite as an ordinance for you and for your sons for ever. And when you come to the land which the Lord will give you, as he has promised, you shall keep this service. And when your children say to you, `What do you mean by this service?’ you shall say, `It is the sacrifice of the Lord’s Passover, for he passed over the houses of the people of Israel in Egypt, when he slew the Egyptians but spared our houses.”
"Departure of the Israelites", by David Roberts, 1829
And so the Israelites fled from Egypt in such a hurry that they could not wait for bread dough to rise or leaven. That’s the reason during the Passover no leavened bread is eaten and Matzo, flat unleavened bread, is a symbol of the holiday.
Now let’s turn back to that night in Bethany when Judas asks Jesus why there was to be no sacrificial lamb as Moses had commanded. Judas takes his complaint to the Jewish high priest appointed by the Romans, Caiaphas, saying,
“Behold He has celebrated the Passover, within the gates, with the Mazza in place of the lamb. I indeed bought a lamb, but He forbade that it should be killed …” to which Caiaphas replies,”Truly this is a Passover of the law of Moses. He hath done the deed which is worthy of death, for it is a weighty transgression of the law … Let us tell these things to the people who follow Him, for they will fear the authority of the law.”
Now let us return to the evening of the Last Supper, to the garden of Gethsemane. Knowing that soon one his disciples would betray him, Jesus asks them to wait. He confesses to Peter and two others that his heart was heavy and his soul sorrowful and requests the three to watch over while he prays. In his prayer he asks, “O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me; not as I will, but as thou wilt.” When Jesus returns to the three disciples he finds them asleep. He reproaches them saying, “What, could ye not watch with me one hour? Watch and pray that ye enter not into temptation; the spirit indeed is willing; but the flesh is weak.”
“He went away again the second time and prayed, saying, O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it, thy will be done. And he came and found them asleep again; for their eyes were heavy. And he left them, and went away again, and prayed the third time, saying the same words. Then cometh he to his disciples, and saith unto them, Sleep on now and take rest. Behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. And after they had slept, he said unto them, Arise, and let us be going. Behold, he is at hand that doth betray me.” (Matthew, Chapter 26)
Judas came to Jesus and said, “Hail, Master!” and kissed him to which Jesus said, “Wherefore art thou come to betray me with a kiss?” Had he come to take Jesus away with swords and staves like a common thief? All the disciples fled in fear as Jesus was taken away to Caiaphas, all except Peter who followed him from afar and watched.
Jesus in the upper right hand corner, is at the high priest's house, his hands bound behind him, and turns to look at Peter, in Rembrandt's, 1660 depiction of Peter's Denial.
But a woman recognized Peter and said, “Thou also wast with Jesus of Galilee.” Peter denied it saying he did not know what they were saying. Then another came up to Peter and said, “This man was also with Jesus of Nazareth.” Again Peter denied it with an oath claiming he did not know the man. After a while some others came up to Peter and claimed,
“Surely thou also art one of them; for thy speech betrayeth thee. Then began he to curse and to swear, saying, I know not the man. And immediately the cock crew. “
And so it happened exactly as Jesus had said, “Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice”, all his followers including Peter denied knowing Jesus and in as much, betrayed him.